Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Alkenes with Cationic Iridium(I) Complexes of 2-Phosphino-l-Aminoferrocene Ligands
Van Belle, Lori
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Iridium complexes with bidentate P,N ligands represent a class of catalysts that significantly expand the application range of asymmetric hydrogenation. New substrate classes, for which there have previously been no suitable catalysts, can now be efficiently hydrogenated in high conversion and enantioselectivity. These substrates are often of synthetic importance, thus iridium catalysis represents a significant advance in the field of asymmetric catalysis. Planar chiral ferrocenyl aminophosphine ligands in which both heteroatoms were directly bound to the cyclopentadienyl ring were prepared by BF3-activated lithiationsubstitution in the presence of a chiral diamine in 49-59% yield and 75-85% enantiomeric excess. Some of these ligands were recrystallized to enantiomeric purity via ammonium fluoroborate salt formation of the phosphine sulfide. A crystal structure of one of these compounds was obtained and features an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the nitrogen, hydrogen, and sulfur atoms. Neutralization, followed by desulfurization, provided the free ligands in enantiomeric purity. Iridium complexes with these ligands were formed via reaction with [Ir(COD)Clh followed by anion exchange with NaBArF. These complexes were successfully applied in homogeneous hydrogenation of several prochiral substrates, providing products in up to 92% enantiomeric excess. Variation of the dimethyl amino group to a pyrrolidine group had a negative effect on the selectivity of hydrogenation. Variation of the substituents on phosphorus to bulkier ortho-tolyl groups had a positive effect, while variation to the more electron rich dicyclohexyl phosphine had a negative effect on selectivity.