DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS FROM THE LATEST MIOCENE THROUGH MIDDLE PLEISTOCENE OF THE CARIBBEAN SEA, ODP SITE 1000: BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, PALEOCEANOGRAPHY, AND SHOALING OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN SEAWAY
Mahdavijourshari, Masoumeh "Mehrsa"
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This is the first detailed study of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) and acritarchs for the latest Miocene–Middle Pleistocene of Ocean Drilling Program Site 1000 in the Caribbean Sea. Well-preserved and moderately diverse dinocysts and other palynomorphs reflect the interplay between neritic (carbonate-platform sourced) and oceanic species. The dinocyst biostratigraphy is tied to an existing marine isotope stratigraphy for the interval 5.5–2.2 Ma. For the interval 5.5–3.8 Ma, palynological samples are coupled to published sea-surface temperature estimates based on planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca. Changes in dinocyst assemblage composition are noted at ca. 4.6 Ma when shoaling of the Central American Seaway caused a temperature rise in the Caribbean, ca. 3.8–3.6 Ma, during the cold Marine Isotope Stage M2 when pronounced warming occurred, at ca. 2.7 Ma where possible weak cooling may reflect the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, and in the Middle Pleistocene presumably reflecting global cooling and sea-level fall.