Hyperspectral Mineral Identification using SVM and SOM
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Remote sensing techniques involving hyperspectral imagery have applications in a number of sciences that study some aspects of the surface of the planet. The analysis of hyperspectral images is complex because of the large amount of information involved and the noise within that data. Investigating images with regard to identify minerals, rocks, vegetation and other materials is an application of hyperspectral remote sensing in the earth sciences. This thesis evaluates the performance of two classification and clustering techniques on hyperspectral images for mineral identification. Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) are applied as classification and clustering techniques, respectively. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to prepare the data to be analyzed. The purpose of using PCA is to reduce the amount of data that needs to be processed by identifying the most important components within the data. A well-studied dataset from Cuprite, Nevada and a dataset of more complex data from Baffin Island were used to assess the performance of these techniques. The main goal of this research study is to evaluate the advantage of training a classifier based on a small amount of data compared to an unsupervised method. Determining the effect of feature extraction on the accuracy of the clustering and classification method is another goal of this research. This thesis concludes that using PCA increases the learning accuracy, and especially so in classification. SVM classifies Cuprite data with a high precision and the SOM challenges SVM on datasets with high level of noise (like Baffin Island).