Early Development of Auditory-Verbal and Visual-Spatial Short-Term Memory: Age and Sex Effects
MetadataShow full item record
Memory is a multi-component cognitive ability to retain and retrieve information presented in different modalities. Research on memory development has shown that the memory capacity and the processes improve gradually from early childhood to adolescence. Findings related to the sex-differences in memory abilities in early childhood have been inconsistent. Although previous research has demonstrated the effects of the modality of stimulus presentation (auditory versus verbal) and the type of material to be remembered (visual/spatial versus auditory/verbal) on the memory processes and memory organization, the recent research with children is rather limited. The present study is a secondary analysis of data, originally collected from 530 typically developing Turkish children and adolescents. The purpose of the present study was to examine the age-related developments and sex differences in auditory-verbal and visual-spatial short-term memory (STM) in 177 typically developing male and female children, 5 to 8 years of age. Dot-Locations and Word-Lists from the Children's Memory Scale were used to measure visual-spatial and auditory-verbal STM performances, respectively. The findings of the present study suggest age-related differences in both visual-spatial and auditory-verbal STM. Sex-differences were observed only in one visual-spatial STM subtest performance. Modality comparisons revealed age- and task-related differences between auditory-verbal and visual-spatial STM performances. There were no sex-related effects in terms of modality specific performances. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence of STM development in early childhood, and these effects were mostly independent of sex and the modality of the task.