A comparative study of protoheme and heme d catalases : role of the heme and the heme pocket in catalysis and ligand binding
Maj, Mary C.
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Catalase dismutes H20 2 to O2 and H20. In successive twoelectron reactions H20 2 induces both oxidation and reduction at the heme group. In the first step the protoheme prosthetic group of beef liver catalase forms compound I, in which the heme has been oxidized from Fe3+ to Fe4+=0 and a porphyrin radical has been created. Compound II is formed by the oneelectron reduction of comp I. It retains Fe4+=0 but lacks the porphyrin radical and is catalytically inert. Molecular structures are available for Escherichia coli Hydroperoxidase II, Micrococcus Iysodeiktus, Penicillium vitale and beef liver enzymes, which contain different hemes and heme pockets. In the present work, the pockets and substrate access channels of protoheme (beef liver & Micrococcus) and heme d (HPII of E. coli and Penicillium) catalases have been analysed using Quanta™ and CharmMTM molecular modeling packages on the Silicon Graphics Iris Indigo 2 computer. Experimental studies have been carried out with two catalases, HPII (and its mutants) and beef liver. Fluoride and formate' are inhibitors of both enzymes, and their binding is modulated by the heme and by distal residues N201 & H128. Both HPII and beef liver enzymes form compound I with H202 or peracetate. The reduction of beef liver enzyme compound I to II and the decay of compound II are accelerated by fluoride. The decay of compound II is also accelerated by formate, and this reagent acts as a 2-electron donor towards compound I of both enzymes. It is concluded that heme d enzymes (Penicillium and HPII of E. coli) are formed by autocatalytic transformation of protoheme in a modified pocket which contains a characteristic serine residue as well as a partially occluded heme channel. They are less active than protoheme enzymes but also do not form the inactive compound II species. Binding of peroxide as well as fluoride and formate is prevented by mutation of H128 and modulated by mutation of N201.