The impact of the Multicolor Asian Lady Beetle (Harmonia axyridis) on wine quality /
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The Impact of the Multicolor Asian Lady Beetle (Harmonia axyridis) on Niagara Wine Quality The possible influence of Harmonia axyridis (the Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle) on the sensory properties of wine was investigated. H. axyridis beetles were added to white and red grape musts at a rate of 0, 1 or 10 per L, and a trained panel evaluated the finished wines using flavor-profiling techniques. Significant modification of both wine aroma and flavor characteristics were observed in the 10 beetlelL treatments, with smaller effects noted at the 1 beetlelL rate. Vinification in the presence of H. axyridis gave higher intensity scores for peanut, bell pepper and asparagus aromas and flavors in the white wines, and peanut, asparagus/bell pepper, and earthy/herbaceous aromas and flavors in the red wines. In addition, sweet, acid and bitter tastes were affected in red wines, and a general trend of decreasing fruit and floral intensities with increasing beetle rate was observed in both white and red wines. 15 ngIL Isopropylmethoxypyrazine was added to control wines and sensory profiles similar to high beetle treatments were obtained, supporting the hypothesis that methoxypyrazines from beetles are implicated in the taint. A trained panel evaluated the treated wines after 10 months of aging using the same sensory methods described above. Sensory profiles were very similar. Fennenting in the presence of Harmonia Axyridis (HA) had little influence on the chemical composition of the ftnished wine. The notable exception IS Isopropylmethoxypyrazine content, which was assessed usmg GC-MS analysis and showed increased concentration with increasing beetle nwnber for both white and red wmes. The influence of potential remedial treatments on the sensory properties of white and red wines tainted by Harmonia axyridis were also investigated. Bentonite, activated charcoal, oak chips, de-odorized oak chips, and UV or light irradiation were applied to tainted wine, and these wines evaluated chemically and sensorially. Both white and red wines treated with oak chips had strong oak characteristics, which masked the Harmonia axyridis-associated aroma and flavour attributes. In red wine, asparagus/bell pepper characteristics were decreased by bentonite and charcoal treatments. Only activated charcoal significantly decreased methoxypyrazine levels and only in white wine.