Exploring the use of prediction and summarization to increase students' listening and reading comprehension /
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This study examined the effect of expHcitly instructing students to use a repertoire of reading comprehension strategies. Specifically, this study examined whether providing students with a "predictive story-frame" which combined the use of prediction and summarization strategies improved their reading comprehension relative to providing students with generic instruction on prediction and summarization. Results were examined in terms of instructional condition and reading ability. Students from 2 grade 4 classes participated in this study. The reading component of the Canadian Achievement Tests, Second Edition (CAT/2) was used to identify students as either "average or above average" or "below average" readers. Students received either strategic predication and summarization instruction (story-frame) or generic prediction and summarization instruction (notepad). Students were provided with new but comparable stories for each session. For both groups, the researcher modelled the strategic tools and provided guided practice, independent practice, and independent reading sessions. Comprehension was measured with an immediate and 1-week delayed comprehension test for each of the 4 stories, hi addition, students participated in a 1- week delayed interview, where they were asked to retell the story and to answer questions about the central elements (character, setting, problem, solution, beginning, middle, and ending events) of each story. There were significant differences, with medium to large effect sizes, in comprehension and recall scores as a fimction of both instructional condition and reading ability. Students in the story-frame condition outperformed students in the notepad condition, and average to above average readers performed better than below average readers. Students in the story-frame condition outperformed students in the notepad condition on the comprehension tests and on the oral retellings when teacher modelling and guidance were present. In the cued recall sessions, students in the story-frame instructional condition recalled more correct information and generated fewer errors than students in the notepad condition. Average to above average readers performed better than below average readers across comprehension and retelling measures. The majority of students in both instructional conditions reported that they would use their strategic tool again.